The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) has handed down a 90-day ban to the Netherlands-flagged ship Flevogracht in a crackdown on poor performers in the maritime industry, reports Baird Maritime.
AMSA detained the general cargo ship, operated by the Spliethoff Group, after the ship’s rescue boat engine was found to be defective.
AMSA had previously issued Spliethoff with two warning letters, outlining concerns over the seaworthiness of the company’s ships. This latest incident is part of a pattern of unacceptable performance from the operator, that poses a risk to the integrity of the ship, the safety of the crew, and the marine environment.
AMSA has now detained five Spliethoff ships in the past two years.
Three of the detentions are related to serious failures to effectively implement Safety of Navigation processes. All three of these detentions occurred in Queensland waters, around the Great Barrier Reef.
Cargo ship detained for lack of marine pilot
On February 16, the master of Spliethoff’s cargo ship Florijngracht was fined $6,000 for breaching compulsory pilotage laws after the ship illegally entered the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park without a marine pilot.
“The fact that Spliethoff ships continue to be detained is evidence of their ongoing and repeated lack of concern for safety and environmental protection,” said AMSA Executive Director of Operations Michael Drake.
“The Great Barrier Reef is one of the world’s great natural wonders, and we have an obligation to ensure that any ships entering its waters do so safely and in full compliance of the law. Ship operators should be on notice that AMSA will not hesitate to take action when we find unacceptable practices on board ships.”
2023 regulation will drive lower emissions for the shipping industry, reveals a Clarksons news source.
One of the goals set out in the IMO’s ‘Initial GHG Strategy’ is to reduce the average carbon intensity of the international shipping industry by at least 40% by 2030, relative to 2008.
In line with this goal, two new regulatory measures from the IMO, EEXI and CII, came into force from 1st January 2023. The new measures will help to assess, measure, and reduce the CO emissions intensity of existing ships.
In 2008, emissions from international shipping peaked at ~1bn tonnes and by 2022 levels had fallen to ~850mt. Over the same period, global seaborne tonne-mile trade increased by ~40%.
Whilst improvements in shipping’s carbon intensity have clearly already been seen, the EEXI and CII regulations will drive further progress, requiring significant energy efficiency improvements in the existing fleet.
In this article we provide a high-level summary of the regulations and their impact.
What is EEXI?
Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI).
EEXI comes into effect from 1st January 2023. It is a technical efficiency measure requiring every existing international cargo and passenger vessel of 400 GT and above to reach a target EEXI value by the first renewal of its International Air Pollution Prevention (IAPP) survey. The measure assesses a ship’s CO emissions related to its transport capacity.
The calculated attained EEXI value for each individual ship must be below its required EEXI to ensure it meets a minimum energy efficiency standard and is included as part of its IAPP. It is a one-time certification.
IAPP certificates have been utilised since 2009, but the inclusion of the EEXI value is a new requirement from 2023.
How is EEXI calculated?
The EEXI calculation is based on the formula for EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index). EEXI measures a ship’s energy efficiency per mile of ship capacity transport work. More specifically, it looks at the installed power of the vessel’s engines, the specific fuel consumption of the engines, a conversion factor between the fuel and corresponding CO emissions, the capacity of the ship (generally deadweight) and the ship’s speed at a reference level of installed power.
There are also several ‘correction factors’ that can be applied specific vessel typesor to account for structural enhancements that have been made to the ship. The calculation can therefore become quite complex.
Is it possible to improve EEXI ratings?
A vessel can install Engine Power Limitation (EPL), which is a system that limits the maximum power of the ship’s main engine and thus its speed, fuel consumption and CO emissions. EPL is one possible solution, though some vessels that require a significant reduction in their EEXI may need to install additional Energy Saving Technologies (ESTs) to reduce fuel consumption.
What happens if a vessel doesn’t meet the EEXI requirements?
All ships are required to have an IAPP, which from 1st January 2023, must include the EEXI value. If ships do not have an EEXI value, then the IAPP can’t be issued. Without a valid IAPP, vessels are unable to trade. If the EEXI value is below the target value, then the ship owner will need to take action to improve the rating.
Who is responsible for calculating and submitting the EEXI rating?
The vessel owner.
How much impact will EEXI have?
Market feedback, and analysis conducted by Clarksons Research, suggests that most ships will be compliant with EEXI following fairly minor modifications (e.g. speed reductions with EPL / some fitting of ESTs), and a small proportion of the fleet is likely to require major modifications (e.g. ESTs with sizeable CAPEX and / or significant speed drops) or have the potential to be non-compliant.
What is CII?
Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII).
CII is an operational efficiency measure applicable to vessels over 5,000 GT from 2023 onwards. It is measured as an annual average of CO emissions per mile of ship capacity transport work. An annual rating between A and E is given to the vessel according to whether its CII meets the required level. Required CII is specific to vessel type and size.
Vessels require a ‘C’-rating or better to be compliant. ‘D’ and ‘E’ rated ships will be deemed non-compliant. In this case the vessel owner must then consider improvement plans and include these within its Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP).
A SEEMP became mandatory in 2013. It establishes a mechanism to improve energy efficiency and performance over time using monitoring tools such as EEOI. Through this, shipowners will have better visibility of the trajectory of their vessel’s energy efficiency – it includes everything from energy efficient lightbulbs on board a ship, to the volume of fuel burned.
CII thresholds become increasing more stringent each year to 2026 to drive continuous improvement in line with the IMO’s 2030 carbon intensity reduction target. A review will be carried out by 1 January 2026 at the latest to understand how the measures are working, and what adjustments might need to be made to ensure the industry aligns with trajectories and targets. CII may also be replaced by other ‘mid-term measures’.
How is CII calculated?
CII is calculated based on total annual CO emissions divided by the vessel’s capacity (deadweight or GT dependent of ship type) multiplied by the total distance travelled in the year. Some correction factors exist for certain vessel types or voyages. The CII rating will be calculated based on the previous year’s emissions; the first ratings will be calculated in 2024 basis 2023 emissions.
Ship owners are required to initiate the collection of operational data via the IMO Data Collection System (DCS) – this has been the case since 2019. As from April 2024, the annual CII rating must be included within this.
Is it possible to improve CII ratings?
Reducing sailing speed is widely acknowledged as the easiest way to comply with the regulation. Alternatively, retrofitting Energy Saving Technologies (ESTs) can help to improve the CII rating.
There are also operational efficiencies that can be implemented such as optimising sailing routes, reducing waiting times, stronger planning around port congestion and ensuring vessels remain in good condition.
What happens if a vessel does not meet the CII requirements?
Vessels rated as ‘D’ or ‘E’ will have to implement a corrective action plan to show how the required rating of a ‘C’ or above will be achieved. A vessel rated as ‘D’ for three consecutive years or a vessel rated as ‘E’ for one year will have to submit these plans as part of their SEEMP.
From a broader market perspective, CII will be a key performance indicator and may have a direct impact on chartering decisions, values, financing and insurance.
There is also potential for the CII to lead to ‘tiered’ markets, where better rated vessels will achieve a premium from charterers and/or less well-rated vessels trade at a discount.
Who is responsible for calculating and submitting the CII rating?
The vessel owner.
How much impact will CII have on decarbonisation?
Market impact analysis from Clarksons Research suggests that around a third of vessels will be ‘D’ or ‘E’ rated if current operational behaviour continues. This would theoretically rise towards 50% if the fleet composition remained the same in 2026 without modification of speed or specification. Clarksons Research’s theoretical impact assessment scenario suggests that on average a moderate reduction in speed across the fleet would be needed to achieve a ‘C’ rating or above. However, for certain parts of the fleet significant speed reductions could be required. Market impacts from CII, including on speed and market “tiering”, will become more significant over time.
How can Clarksons assist with CII?
CII will have an impact on chartering, S&P and newbuilding activity. For charterers and vessel owners, it is becoming increasingly important to not only understand CII exposure but to then evaluate the various improvement options. Clarksons can help with that, providing bespoke insight to inform better business decisions.
A Safety4Sea speaks about the key highlights involving IMO Ship Systems and Equipment 9.
IMO Ship Systems and Equipment Sub-Committee
The IMO Ship Systems and Equipment Sub-Committee (SSE) Session 9, that took place from 27 February – 3 March 2023, discussed the technical and operational requirements for systems and safety equipment on ships. Lloyd’s Register has issued a summary Report that includes an executive summary for those requiring a general overview, but also more technical information for those who would like more detail on the discussions that took place.
Key outcomes from SSE 9 include:
Finalisation of the draft International Code of Safety for Diving Operations, (Diving Code).
Extension of the new requirements for the ventilation of totally enclosed lifeboats to partially enclosed lifeboats and liferafts was not agreed, instead being referred to SSE 10 for further discussion.
Finalisation of the draft amendments to the LSA Code and resolution MSC.81(70) to address the in-water performance of SOLAS lifejackets, which is expected to enter into force 1 January 2026.
SSE 9 considered if there is compelling evidence to extend the requirements for the ventilation of totally enclosed lifeboats to partially-enclosed lifeboats and liferafts but could not agree and has deferred the decision until SSE 10 (March 2024). Clients should note that amendments to the Life-Saving Appliances (LSA) Code and the Revised recommendation on testing of life-saving appliances (resolution MSC.81(70)) on new requirements for the ventilation of survival craft) were approved by MSC 106 for totally enclosed lifeboats only. These amendments are expected to enter into force 1 January 2026.
Draft amendments to the LSA Code and resolution
SSE 9 finalised the draft amendments to the LSA Code and resolution MSC.81(70)regarding the testing of lifejackets to address the in-water performance of SOLAS lifejackets. The draft amendments are expected to enter into force 1 January 2026.
SSE 9 agreed to expand the work on the use of fire-fighting foams containing perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) to include other fluorinated foams, and as such, it will remain on the agenda for SSE 10. Clients should note that MSC 106 approved amendments to SOLAS chapter II-2, the 1994 HSC Code and the 2000 HSC Code to prohibit the use of fire-fighting foams containing perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The amendments are expected to enter into force 1 January 2026 and will apply to both fixed and portable systems.
SSE 9 finalised the amendments to SOLAS regulation II-2/7.5.5, together with the associated draft MSC resolution addressing fire protection of control stations and cargo control rooms on cargo ships for submission to MSC 107 for approval and subsequent adoption at MSC 108. Once adopted, the amendments are expected to apply to ships constructed on or after 1 January 2026. Ships constructed before 1 January 2026 shall comply with the current requirements.
Mar 1 UPDATE: YONG XING 56 sank on Mar 1, salvors failed to salvage the ship, and she sank at at 253 meter depth. Understood salvors took ship out of ice zone trying to ease access to breach, but how did towage contribute to sinking? There is no heavy swell seen in these last photos photos of hapless bulk carrier. According to official report, YONG XING 56 sank at 0535 Moscow time, breach wasn’t sealed, pumping water out of flooded compartments also failed.
Feb 27 UPDATE: As it transpired, the ship is loaded with alumina, forepeak is holed and most probably, fore cargo hold also. YONG XING 56 developed heavy fore tilt, she’s stuck in ice and drifts with ice floes. Salvors are trying to seal the breach, salvage outcome still indecisive. Feb 24 UPDATE: Reportedly bulk carrier hull was breached by ice, YONG XING 56 and other ships in the area aren’t anchored therefore, but drift in ice floes, waiting for icebreaker.
Bulk carrier YONG XING 56 issued distress signal in the evening Feb 23, at anchorage in Tatar Strait south of Vanino, ship’s port of destination. Ferry SAKHALIN-8 and rescued 21 crew, all-Chinese. They’re to be disembarked at Vanino. Bulk carrier reportedly suffered hull breach starboard, in Hold 1 area, with ensuing mass water ingress. Judging from track screen, the ship looked like she drifted onto anchored general cargo ship VIKTORIYA (IMO 9004516). Ship’s AIS seems to be working, SAR ship OTTO SCHMIDT is under way to assist troubled bulk carrier. YONG XING 56 arrived at anchorage on Feb 19, she was to load coal at Vanino.
Amendments to MARPOL annexes Among the meeting highlights were the amendments to MARPOL annexes. Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI were adopted to establish a Mediterranean Emission Control Area (ECA) for sulphur oxides and particulate matter. The requirement will be the same as for other sulphur ECAs, ensuring vessels use fuel oil with a sulphur content not exceeding 0.10% or employ an exhaust gas cleaning system. These changes will enter into force on 1 May 2024, but not take effect until 1 May 2025, giving affected businesses over two years to adapt.
Flashpoint of fuel MARPOL Annex VI was further amended at Appendix V to include information on the flashpoint of fuel in the Bunker Delivery Note (BDN).
Relevant parties could alternatively provide a statement that the flashpoint has been measured at or above 70°C. This amendment enters into force on 1 May 2024.
Early application Finally, Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI, Appendix IX were adopted to include the attained and required Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) values, the CII rating and attained Energy Efficiency Design Index for existing ships (EEXI) in the required information to be submitted to the IMO Ship Fuel Oil Consumption Database.
Again, the amendment enters into force on 1 May 2024, but the MEPC invites administrations – at their option – to consider early application from 1 January 2024.
Work towards MEPC 80 The MEPC also indicated plans to adopt various further changes at its next session, to be held in July 2023. These changes include a revision to the format of the Ballast Water Record Book (BWRB) to bring it in line with the oil record book. Also, the parties signalled their intention to provide guidance permitting the use of ballast tanks for temporary storage of treated sewage and grey water.
The congress also agreed in principle to designate the North-western Mediterranean Sea as a PSSA (Particularly Sensitive Sea Area), with protective measures to be established prior to the designation.
Revision of the IMO Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Strategy While the amendments above indicated a spirit of cordiality, there remains a lack of agreement between member states about how to reduce GHG usage. Some states call for full decarbonisation by 2050, while others call for further assessments on the feasibility of achieving such an ambition and its potential impacts.
Member states could also not agree on whether the intermediate target should be set for 2030 or 2040. Working groups are to be established in the coming months to ensure momentum going into MEPC 80.
Impose set price As to the method of achieving these goals, members did indicate a preference for a levy scheme, which would impose a set price on well-to-wake or tank-to-wake GHG emissions, in combination with a rebate system where the revenues are partly provided back to vessels to cover the price gap between fossil and low or zerocarbon fuels.
Members also indicated support for establishing a well-to-wake GHG intensity fuel standard.
Seafarers have to carry out a variety of challenging tasks to ensure optimal maintenance and smooth operation of the vessel.
Welding and other hot work can be particularly risky. Fires or explosions onboard tankers are especially dangerous as flammable cargoes can potentially cause crew fatality and destroy the entire vessel.
Hence, proper safety standards and inspections must be enforced to ensure the safety and welfare of crew members at all times. A recent news article published in the Safety update for welding on tankers. Click here to read more..
A set of amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the associated Codes enter into force on 1 January 2024. This statutory news highlights the changes that have been adopted for the 2024 update of SOLAS and its associated Codes, reports DNV. To read more click here..
The Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) has published the full set of questions that may be asked during a SIRE 2.0 tanker inspection.
SIRE 2.0 inspections will be conducted in digital format.
The SIRE 2.0 Question Library and supporting documentation and guidance hasbeen published on OCIMF’s website.
The Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) has published the full set of questions that may be asked during a SIRE 2.0 tanker inspection…, says an article published on xinde marine news website. Read more click here..
Guidance on treatment of innovative energy e4ciency technologies
At the MEPC65 held in May 2013, “2013 Guidance on treatment of innovative energy efficiency technologies for calculation and verification of the attained EEDI (MEPC.1/Circ.815)” was approved to incorporate the effect of innovative energy efficiency technologies such as Air Lubrication System, Waste Heat Recovery System for Generation of Electricity and Photovoltaic Power Generation System in the attained EEDI.
On the other hand, the effects of Wind Assisted Propulsion System could not be incorporated in the attained EEDI because the methods to reflect the effect were not clearly defined.
Guidance revised At the MEPC77 held in November 2021, the methods to reflect the effects of Wind Assisted Propulsion System were discussed and the revised guidance, “2021 Guidance on treatment of innovative energy efficiency technologies for calculation and verification of the attained EEDI and EEXI (MEPC.1/Circ.896)” was approved.
As a result of this revision, in addition to Air Lubrication System, Waste Heat Recovery System for Generation of Electricity and Photovoltaic Power Generation System, the effects of Wind Assisted Propulsion System, whose effects could not be incorporated previously, could be incorporated in the attained EEDI and EEXI.
The IMO guidance mentioned in this Technical Information is available on the ClassNK website’s EEDI regulation section.
OCIMF has been working on the new SIRE 2.0 regime since 2017 and is expected to become operational in 2022. Until then, the current SIRE programme will continue to be updated and improved to incorporate the latest standards, best practice and regulations. Read more.